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00000176-d8fc-dce8-adff-faff71c90000Idaho's wildfire season is here, and that means you're going to be hearing a lot of firefighting jargon to describe what's going on.We put together this list of key firefighting terms you're likely to hear in the next few months.GlossaryHotshots: A highly trained hand crew of wildland firefighters that works on the ground to contain a blaze. Crews usually operate in 20-person teams, and are sent in first to deal with the worst fire conditions on short notice. Hotshots have a high level of physical fitness. They can carry up to 50 pounds along with a chainsaw and shovel. There are more than 100 hotshot crews around the country, and the National Interagency Fire Center in Boise coordinates the crews.Hand crew: Wildland firefighters that could have different levels of training. They work on the ground with hand tools like shovels, chainsaws and axes. They dig fire lines (also called "firebreaks") to try and get the fire under control.Smokejumper: An elite firefighter that parachutes into remote wildland fires. They work to suppress and put out fires before they become a bigger problem, and can adapt to quickly changing situations. Smokejumpers have to be fit and highly trained. They carry heavy packs and protective suits and work in mountainous terrain. Idaho has three smokejumping bases in Boise, McCall and Grangeville.Fire lines or firebreaks: Usually about 10-12 feet wide, fire lines are cut with shovels and axes to contain and suppress a blaze. Hand crews -- including hotshots -- will dig lines and clear out brush so the fire will get choked off without fuel.Containment levels: The agency that manages a fire will say how "contained" a fire is. At 100 percent containment a fire isn't out. That means a complete fire line has been dug around the fire. A contained fire can quickly become out of control again with a shift in weather.Controlled fire: This is when a wildfire is considered out. Here's how the BLM office in Idaho Falls describes it: "Think of a container -- say, a mason jar. A fire is contained when it's all 'bottled in,' like in a container. The fire may still be burning, but if a distinct fire line is built around the entire perimeter so that there is no chance for the fire to escape or spot over outside the line, then the fire fighters declare the fire 'contained.' "Human caused: This means someone accidentally or intentionally caused a fire. This could be from a discarded cigarette, a embers from a campfire, or even sparks from a truck along a forested highway. As Smokey says, nine times out of 10, a wildfire is human-caused.Fire danger: This is a rating system from the U.S. Forest Service that helps predict how likely a wildfire could start in an area. It takes into account the weather forecast, terrain and personnel. "Low" means a blaze would likely not spread, while "moderate" means a fire could start but could be contained. "High" to "very high" means fires can catch and spread easily, while "extreme" means the conditions are so difficult and fast-changing that fighting the blaze directly is rare.Red flag warning: These warning are issued by regional National Weather Service offices, and help firefighting management teams understand the weather-related risks for fire starts. Drought and low humidity mixed with windy conditions usually spell a red flag warning. Burning bans sometimes come along with these warnings.Complex: Two or more larger wildfires in the same general area. A complex is managed by a unified team of firefighters.Air attack: Usually used during the initial stages of a small blaze, or as a suppression tool during large fires. Air attacks can drop fire retardant or water to help support hand and engine crews. Multi-engine or heavy air tankers, single-engine air tankers, and helicopters are the three most common types of aircraft that can be used. Multi-engine tankers carry the most retardant, while helicopters (or helitankers) can make more precise but smaller drops.Fire retardant: Also known as slurry, these USDA-approved chemicals are dropped by aircraft over wildfires that management teams believe could grow and become dangerous. It's often used to protect private property. A 2010 ruling from the U.S. District Court in Montana raised questions about its environmental effects.Incident management teams: Operating from level one through five, these teams of firefighters can be sent around the country to suppress fires. Type 1 and 2 IMT's often work on the most difficult and dangerous fires, and can include local firefighting resources.ResourcesWe also pulled together these key resources where you can find up-to-date information about wildfires.The National Interagency Fire Center coordinates fire management teams around the country, and is based in Boise. This year, NIFC predicted a higher level of fire danger in Idaho forests, while the grassland should get a bit of a break.The Bureau of Land Management's site will update Idahoans about fire restrictions on public land.InciWeb updates fire information around the country, giving handy info about road closures during the summer travel season. You'll also find maps, photos, and growth potential for a particular fire.And if you tweet, consider following these organizations and agencies for fire updates in 140 characters.

Aussies And Kiwis Will Fight American Wildfires From Idaho

Adam Cotterell
Boise State Public Radio
Aussie and Kiwi firefighters queue up for fire gear in a hanger at the National Interagency Fire Center in Boise.

More than 70 firefighters from Australia and New Zealand arrived in Boise Sunday to help fight wildfires burning throughout the Northwest. They are currently at the National Interagency Fire Center in Boise for training and will deploy later this week. Area fire managers requested their help last week, following a rash of large fires that have stretched American resources very thin.

Australia and the U.S. have a lot in common when it comes to fire. Every summer, fires burn thousands of acres.  Both countries have state and national agencies that coordinate to fight fires. Their organizational systems and fire terminology are intentionally similar to make working together easier, and the two countries often send each other firefighters. But John Costeniro - who is in Idaho from Australia’s Victoria State - says there are differences on the ground. He says Australia has mountains, but compared to Idaho its terrain is flat. Where he comes from, it's much dryer.

Credit Adam Cotterell / Boise State Public Radio
Boise State Public Radio
John Costeniro's job title back home is Forest and Fire Manager.

“We don’t have water like you guys have out in the forest, so it’s mainly dry firefighting,” Costeniro says. “So rake hoe trails or lines around, that sort of stuff. We don’t have lakes or many water sources like you guys seem to have in our remote areas.”

Costeniro says he got on a plane to Idaho with 24 hours’ notice. This is his first time outside his country but he worked with American firefighters who helped fight Australia’s devastating Black Saturday fires in 2009.

“And I’ve developed friendships and we still keep in touch all the time,” Costeniro says. “And so I’m actually meeting up with one of the guys that I worked with six years ago.”

The 50 plus Australians and 15 New Zealanders are mostly front line managers - people who coordinate operations from the field, rather than pilots or ground crew members. There is currently a shortage of these skilled mid-level managers on fires in the Northwest.

More than 1.6 million acres are burning in the U.S. with more than a million of them in Oregon, Washington and Idaho. The Australians and New Zealanders will join thousands of American firefighters as well as National Guard and active duty members of the military who are already working on these fires.

Credit Adam Cotterell / Boise State Public Radio
Boise State Public Radio
Simon Martin fights fires in the state of Western Australia. He says this trip to Idaho is his first time overseas.

Australia also saw some big fires this year that stretched that country’s resources. But those occurred mainly in January and February. Simon Martin, with the Department of Parks and Wildlife in Western Australia, says there was no problem taking firefighters out of the country now.

“It’s our winter at the moment, so in the more populated areas in the south fire season, well it’s suppressed at the moment,” Martin says. “In my patch in particular in southwest Western Australia, it’s very wet and everyone’s just gearing up for the burning season coming up where we do a lot of prescribed burning ahead of the bush fire season.”

For more local news, follow the KBSX newsroom on Twitter @KBSX915

Copyright 2015 Boise State Public Radio

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