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Environment
00000176-d8fc-dce8-adff-faff71c90000Idaho's wildfire season is here, and that means you're going to be hearing a lot of firefighting jargon to describe what's going on.We put together this list of key firefighting terms you're likely to hear in the next few months.GlossaryHotshots: A highly trained hand crew of wildland firefighters that works on the ground to contain a blaze. Crews usually operate in 20-person teams, and are sent in first to deal with the worst fire conditions on short notice. Hotshots have a high level of physical fitness. They can carry up to 50 pounds along with a chainsaw and shovel. There are more than 100 hotshot crews around the country, and the National Interagency Fire Center in Boise coordinates the crews.Hand crew: Wildland firefighters that could have different levels of training. They work on the ground with hand tools like shovels, chainsaws and axes. They dig fire lines (also called "firebreaks") to try and get the fire under control.Smokejumper: An elite firefighter that parachutes into remote wildland fires. They work to suppress and put out fires before they become a bigger problem, and can adapt to quickly changing situations. Smokejumpers have to be fit and highly trained. They carry heavy packs and protective suits and work in mountainous terrain. Idaho has three smokejumping bases in Boise, McCall and Grangeville.Fire lines or firebreaks: Usually about 10-12 feet wide, fire lines are cut with shovels and axes to contain and suppress a blaze. Hand crews -- including hotshots -- will dig lines and clear out brush so the fire will get choked off without fuel.Containment levels: The agency that manages a fire will say how "contained" a fire is. At 100 percent containment a fire isn't out. That means a complete fire line has been dug around the fire. A contained fire can quickly become out of control again with a shift in weather.Controlled fire: This is when a wildfire is considered out. Here's how the BLM office in Idaho Falls describes it: "Think of a container -- say, a mason jar. A fire is contained when it's all 'bottled in,' like in a container. The fire may still be burning, but if a distinct fire line is built around the entire perimeter so that there is no chance for the fire to escape or spot over outside the line, then the fire fighters declare the fire 'contained.' "Human caused: This means someone accidentally or intentionally caused a fire. This could be from a discarded cigarette, a embers from a campfire, or even sparks from a truck along a forested highway. As Smokey says, nine times out of 10, a wildfire is human-caused.Fire danger: This is a rating system from the U.S. Forest Service that helps predict how likely a wildfire could start in an area. It takes into account the weather forecast, terrain and personnel. "Low" means a blaze would likely not spread, while "moderate" means a fire could start but could be contained. "High" to "very high" means fires can catch and spread easily, while "extreme" means the conditions are so difficult and fast-changing that fighting the blaze directly is rare.Red flag warning: These warning are issued by regional National Weather Service offices, and help firefighting management teams understand the weather-related risks for fire starts. Drought and low humidity mixed with windy conditions usually spell a red flag warning. Burning bans sometimes come along with these warnings.Complex: Two or more larger wildfires in the same general area. A complex is managed by a unified team of firefighters.Air attack: Usually used during the initial stages of a small blaze, or as a suppression tool during large fires. Air attacks can drop fire retardant or water to help support hand and engine crews. Multi-engine or heavy air tankers, single-engine air tankers, and helicopters are the three most common types of aircraft that can be used. Multi-engine tankers carry the most retardant, while helicopters (or helitankers) can make more precise but smaller drops.Fire retardant: Also known as slurry, these USDA-approved chemicals are dropped by aircraft over wildfires that management teams believe could grow and become dangerous. It's often used to protect private property. A 2010 ruling from the U.S. District Court in Montana raised questions about its environmental effects.Incident management teams: Operating from level one through five, these teams of firefighters can be sent around the country to suppress fires. Type 1 and 2 IMT's often work on the most difficult and dangerous fires, and can include local firefighting resources.ResourcesWe also pulled together these key resources where you can find up-to-date information about wildfires.The National Interagency Fire Center coordinates fire management teams around the country, and is based in Boise. This year, NIFC predicted a higher level of fire danger in Idaho forests, while the grassland should get a bit of a break.The Bureau of Land Management's site will update Idahoans about fire restrictions on public land.InciWeb updates fire information around the country, giving handy info about road closures during the summer travel season. You'll also find maps, photos, and growth potential for a particular fire.And if you tweet, consider following these organizations and agencies for fire updates in 140 characters.

Fly Over The Soda Fire: Rehabilitation Teams Already Making Plans To Reclaim The Landscape

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J. Alleman
/
Bureau of Land Management
Aftermath of the Soda Fire

The Soda Fire was officially contained this week, at 445 square miles. Now thoughts turn to reclaiming the landscape southwest of Boise.

A team of 40 specialists spent five days in the field, surveying the burned area. Their goal is to find and fight threats to life, property and resources over the next three years.

T.J. Clifford is the Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) Team Leader for the Soda Fire. The team is working for the Bureau of Land Management but is made up of people from multiple agencies.

Clifford says when he walked through the burned areas he saw lots of black landscape, and very little green.

“That’s a little abnormal,” Clifford says. Usually there will be many islands of unburned land, sometimes as large as a few hundred acres in size. Not so on the Soda Fire.

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Credit A. Stillman / Bureau of Land Management
White circles of ash remain where sagebrush was burned in the Soda Fire. Very little of the landscape was left unburned.

“Those unburned islands are usually less than about five acres and even within that five acres it appears that the shrub component has still been lost.”

Clifford says he’s worried about three things: flooding, invasive plants and future fires.

“The most immediate threat that we’ve identified is the potential for roads and bridges to get flooded.”

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Credit J. Alleman / Bureau of Land Management
Fisheries biologist examines creek for redband trout and assesses threats posed to its habitat by ash-covered slopes.

He’s also worried about invasive cheat grass and medusahead.

“They’re a little faster. They come in earlier in the spring so they beat most of the native vegetation. That’s a very real threat for those non-native or exotic annual species to take over.”

When those invasives take over, Clifford says they change the fire frequency.

“Something that’s dominated by cheat grass will burn almost every year. That change makes it very difficult to re-establish the sagebrush, so important to that area.”

Take a flight over the Soda Fire landscape with this footage shot by E. Hipke of the BLM.

Clifford says it can take up to 30 years for sagebrush to reestablish itself. That means preventing future fires on the landscape.

“So we have a full 30 years to re-establish that sagebrush and that habitat so important to the sage grouse.”

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Credit B.Hoffman / Bureau of Land Management
The Soda Fire burned 445 square miles.

He says cooperation between state, federal and private landowners is key to rehabilitating the land burned in the Soda Fire. 

“It is going to be very important for all the agencies to figure out a way to set aside the funding and the energy to accomplish this task. It’s not going to be easy.”

Clifford says his crew has three weeks to write their plan and get it approved by the BLM. The initial plan covers three years, but rehabbing such a large area could take decades. The hope is to start rehabilitation efforts as soon as October.

Find Samantha Wright on Twitter @samwrightradio

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