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00000176-d8fc-dce8-adff-faff71c90000Idaho's wildfire season is here, and that means you're going to be hearing a lot of firefighting jargon to describe what's going on.We put together this list of key firefighting terms you're likely to hear in the next few months.GlossaryHotshots: A highly trained hand crew of wildland firefighters that works on the ground to contain a blaze. Crews usually operate in 20-person teams, and are sent in first to deal with the worst fire conditions on short notice. Hotshots have a high level of physical fitness. They can carry up to 50 pounds along with a chainsaw and shovel. There are more than 100 hotshot crews around the country, and the National Interagency Fire Center in Boise coordinates the crews.Hand crew: Wildland firefighters that could have different levels of training. They work on the ground with hand tools like shovels, chainsaws and axes. They dig fire lines (also called "firebreaks") to try and get the fire under control.Smokejumper: An elite firefighter that parachutes into remote wildland fires. They work to suppress and put out fires before they become a bigger problem, and can adapt to quickly changing situations. Smokejumpers have to be fit and highly trained. They carry heavy packs and protective suits and work in mountainous terrain. Idaho has three smokejumping bases in Boise, McCall and Grangeville.Fire lines or firebreaks: Usually about 10-12 feet wide, fire lines are cut with shovels and axes to contain and suppress a blaze. Hand crews -- including hotshots -- will dig lines and clear out brush so the fire will get choked off without fuel.Containment levels: The agency that manages a fire will say how "contained" a fire is. At 100 percent containment a fire isn't out. That means a complete fire line has been dug around the fire. A contained fire can quickly become out of control again with a shift in weather.Controlled fire: This is when a wildfire is considered out. Here's how the BLM office in Idaho Falls describes it: "Think of a container -- say, a mason jar. A fire is contained when it's all 'bottled in,' like in a container. The fire may still be burning, but if a distinct fire line is built around the entire perimeter so that there is no chance for the fire to escape or spot over outside the line, then the fire fighters declare the fire 'contained.' "Human caused: This means someone accidentally or intentionally caused a fire. This could be from a discarded cigarette, a embers from a campfire, or even sparks from a truck along a forested highway. As Smokey says, nine times out of 10, a wildfire is human-caused.Fire danger: This is a rating system from the U.S. Forest Service that helps predict how likely a wildfire could start in an area. It takes into account the weather forecast, terrain and personnel. "Low" means a blaze would likely not spread, while "moderate" means a fire could start but could be contained. "High" to "very high" means fires can catch and spread easily, while "extreme" means the conditions are so difficult and fast-changing that fighting the blaze directly is rare.Red flag warning: These warning are issued by regional National Weather Service offices, and help firefighting management teams understand the weather-related risks for fire starts. Drought and low humidity mixed with windy conditions usually spell a red flag warning. Burning bans sometimes come along with these warnings.Complex: Two or more larger wildfires in the same general area. A complex is managed by a unified team of firefighters.Air attack: Usually used during the initial stages of a small blaze, or as a suppression tool during large fires. Air attacks can drop fire retardant or water to help support hand and engine crews. Multi-engine or heavy air tankers, single-engine air tankers, and helicopters are the three most common types of aircraft that can be used. Multi-engine tankers carry the most retardant, while helicopters (or helitankers) can make more precise but smaller drops.Fire retardant: Also known as slurry, these USDA-approved chemicals are dropped by aircraft over wildfires that management teams believe could grow and become dangerous. It's often used to protect private property. A 2010 ruling from the U.S. District Court in Montana raised questions about its environmental effects.Incident management teams: Operating from level one through five, these teams of firefighters can be sent around the country to suppress fires. Type 1 and 2 IMT's often work on the most difficult and dangerous fires, and can include local firefighting resources.ResourcesWe also pulled together these key resources where you can find up-to-date information about wildfires.The National Interagency Fire Center coordinates fire management teams around the country, and is based in Boise. This year, NIFC predicted a higher level of fire danger in Idaho forests, while the grassland should get a bit of a break.The Bureau of Land Management's site will update Idahoans about fire restrictions on public land.InciWeb updates fire information around the country, giving handy info about road closures during the summer travel season. You'll also find maps, photos, and growth potential for a particular fire.And if you tweet, consider following these organizations and agencies for fire updates in 140 characters.

Idaho National Laboratory Prepares For 2020 Fire Season After Last Year's Sheep Fire

Idaho National Laboratory
Over 120 firefighters from 15 different regional agencies were involved in bringing the 2019 Sheep Fire under control with no injuries. The fire burned approximately 112,000 acres on the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

A year after a massive wildfire swept across the high-desert grasslands at the Idaho National Laboratory, the research facility is figuring out how to protect its property going forward.


The Sheep Fire last July was caused by a lightning strike and burned more than 112,000 acres. It was the largest fire on the INL property in its 70-year history. 

“We fought that fire overnight and by the next morning, it did something we’d never seen," said Eric Gosswiller, the fire chief at the INL, where there are 22 full-time firefighters.


“By 7 o’clock in the morning, it was a plume-dominated fire, and it went really large very quickly. It expanded from about 10,000 acres to about 80,000 acres in a few hours," Gosswiller said.



Credit Bureau of Land Management
The 2019 Sheep Fire burned approximately 112,000 acres of vegetation, the largest fire in the INL Site’s 70-year history and the second largest in the lower 48 states in 2019.

There wasn’t much damage caused by the fire — flames came within a couple of miles of a facility that processes nuclear waster and non-essential employees from several facilities were evacuated, but no major structures were compromised. The fire reached a few power poles, but none were lost because of a protective paint coating.

Still, after a large fire, the landscape itself takes a hit. That's significant on INL’s property, which is protected sage grouse habitat.

“With the 20-plus years of fire here in the West, the more of that habitat we lose, it’s problematic," Gosswiller said.

Early this spring, INL and agencies such as the Bureau of Land Management and the Department of Energy went out in a helicopter to aerially seed 25,000 acres of burned sagebrush and fire containment lines that were bulldozed to stop the fire from reaching INL buildings last summer.

The Sheep Fire forced officials at INL and the federal agencies to rethink how to protect the natural resources on the property. A complete ecological report on the impacts of fire and fire mitigation techniques on the wildlife there will guide future fire treatments and recovery plans.


Find reporter Rachel Cohen on Twitter @racheld_cohen


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