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00000176-d8fc-dce8-adff-faff71c90000Idaho's wildfire season is here, and that means you're going to be hearing a lot of firefighting jargon to describe what's going on.We put together this list of key firefighting terms you're likely to hear in the next few months.GlossaryHotshots: A highly trained hand crew of wildland firefighters that works on the ground to contain a blaze. Crews usually operate in 20-person teams, and are sent in first to deal with the worst fire conditions on short notice. Hotshots have a high level of physical fitness. They can carry up to 50 pounds along with a chainsaw and shovel. There are more than 100 hotshot crews around the country, and the National Interagency Fire Center in Boise coordinates the crews.Hand crew: Wildland firefighters that could have different levels of training. They work on the ground with hand tools like shovels, chainsaws and axes. They dig fire lines (also called "firebreaks") to try and get the fire under control.Smokejumper: An elite firefighter that parachutes into remote wildland fires. They work to suppress and put out fires before they become a bigger problem, and can adapt to quickly changing situations. Smokejumpers have to be fit and highly trained. They carry heavy packs and protective suits and work in mountainous terrain. Idaho has three smokejumping bases in Boise, McCall and Grangeville.Fire lines or firebreaks: Usually about 10-12 feet wide, fire lines are cut with shovels and axes to contain and suppress a blaze. Hand crews -- including hotshots -- will dig lines and clear out brush so the fire will get choked off without fuel.Containment levels: The agency that manages a fire will say how "contained" a fire is. At 100 percent containment a fire isn't out. That means a complete fire line has been dug around the fire. A contained fire can quickly become out of control again with a shift in weather.Controlled fire: This is when a wildfire is considered out. Here's how the BLM office in Idaho Falls describes it: "Think of a container -- say, a mason jar. A fire is contained when it's all 'bottled in,' like in a container. The fire may still be burning, but if a distinct fire line is built around the entire perimeter so that there is no chance for the fire to escape or spot over outside the line, then the fire fighters declare the fire 'contained.' "Human caused: This means someone accidentally or intentionally caused a fire. This could be from a discarded cigarette, a embers from a campfire, or even sparks from a truck along a forested highway. As Smokey says, nine times out of 10, a wildfire is human-caused.Fire danger: This is a rating system from the U.S. Forest Service that helps predict how likely a wildfire could start in an area. It takes into account the weather forecast, terrain and personnel. "Low" means a blaze would likely not spread, while "moderate" means a fire could start but could be contained. "High" to "very high" means fires can catch and spread easily, while "extreme" means the conditions are so difficult and fast-changing that fighting the blaze directly is rare.Red flag warning: These warning are issued by regional National Weather Service offices, and help firefighting management teams understand the weather-related risks for fire starts. Drought and low humidity mixed with windy conditions usually spell a red flag warning. Burning bans sometimes come along with these warnings.Complex: Two or more larger wildfires in the same general area. A complex is managed by a unified team of firefighters.Air attack: Usually used during the initial stages of a small blaze, or as a suppression tool during large fires. Air attacks can drop fire retardant or water to help support hand and engine crews. Multi-engine or heavy air tankers, single-engine air tankers, and helicopters are the three most common types of aircraft that can be used. Multi-engine tankers carry the most retardant, while helicopters (or helitankers) can make more precise but smaller drops.Fire retardant: Also known as slurry, these USDA-approved chemicals are dropped by aircraft over wildfires that management teams believe could grow and become dangerous. It's often used to protect private property. A 2010 ruling from the U.S. District Court in Montana raised questions about its environmental effects.Incident management teams: Operating from level one through five, these teams of firefighters can be sent around the country to suppress fires. Type 1 and 2 IMT's often work on the most difficult and dangerous fires, and can include local firefighting resources.ResourcesWe also pulled together these key resources where you can find up-to-date information about wildfires.The National Interagency Fire Center coordinates fire management teams around the country, and is based in Boise. This year, NIFC predicted a higher level of fire danger in Idaho forests, while the grassland should get a bit of a break.The Bureau of Land Management's site will update Idahoans about fire restrictions on public land.InciWeb updates fire information around the country, giving handy info about road closures during the summer travel season. You'll also find maps, photos, and growth potential for a particular fire.And if you tweet, consider following these organizations and agencies for fire updates in 140 characters.

Gel Could Help Prevent Wildfires In High-Risk Areas

The researchers tested their fire-retarding hydrogel on a grassy roadside near San Luis Obispo, Calif. In one minute, untreated plots burned almost entirely while treated grass remained mostly intact. ignition.
The researchers tested their fire-retarding hydrogel on a grassy roadside near San Luis Obispo, Calif. In one minute, untreated plots burned almost entirely while treated grass remained mostly intact. ignition.

Wildland firefighters use fire retardant — the red stuff that air tankers drop — to suppress existing blazes. But Stanford researchers have developed a gel-like fluid they say makes fire retardant last longer and could prevent wildfires from igniting in the first place if applied to ignition-prone areas.

“Right now we’re sort of limited by the tools at hand and we wait for fires to start and then we go out and try to put them out,” said Stanford materials scientist Eric Appel.

He says the gel potentially offers a more proactive approach. It could allow them to apply flame retardant in areas that commonly tend to ignite, like along certain roadways or on utility poles, like the ones that caught fire in Paradise, California, and blocked escape routes when they fell. 

"You can treat a small amount of land and prevent a very large proportion of the fires that occur," he said.

Usually, wind and rain get rid of retardant quickly, but as Appel and his colleagues wrote in a study published Monday in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, this gel is designed to keep the retardant around for a whole wildfire season before being washed away by heavy rain.

The researchers burned 220-pound piles of greasewood. This image, taken one minute after ignition, shows treated piles burned more slowly than untreated piles, even after four weeks of exposure to the elements and a simulated half-inch rainfall.
Credit Jesse D. Acosta
The researchers burned 220-pound piles of greasewood. This image, taken one minute after ignition, shows treated piles burned more slowly than untreated piles, even after four weeks of exposure to the elements and a simulated half-inch rainfall.

In addition to lab experiments, the researchers also tested the product outdoors. They sprayed plots of open grass and piles of greasewood with the gel-retardant mixture, then let them sit for two weeks, then poured water on them to simulate a half-inch rainfall before letting them dry out for another two weeks. Finally, they set them on fire. In one minute, more than 90% of the untreated grass areas burned, while fires in the treated grass plots were limited to a small area and appeared to peter out. Untreated greasewood piles ignited quickly and took less than two minutes to reach a steady-state burn temperature, while treated ones ignited more slowly and took more than six minutes.

The study’s lead author, Anthony Yu, a PhD student in materials science and engineering at Stanford, said in a press release the method should be more affordable than fighting fires once they get out of control: “You can put 20,000 gallons of this on an area for prevention, or 1 million gallons of the traditional formulation after a fire starts.”

Crystal Kolden, a wildland fire expert at the University of Idaho who was not involved in the study, emphasizes that the gel isn’t intended to be applied across vast landscapes.

“What it will do is improve protection of critical areas, particularly homes and critical infrastructure, where small-scale application can support point protection and prevent disasters,” Kolden said. “It is a complement to the wide array of fire mitigation tools we have, not a silver bullet replacement.”

The study, "Wildfire prevention through prophylactic treatment of high-risk landscapes using viscoelastic retardant fluids," was published under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. A version is embedded below. Tap the yellow arrows to see comments from people who were not involved in the research. 

This story was produced by the Mountain West News Bureau, a collaboration between Wyoming Public Media, Boise State Public Radio in Idaho, KUER in Salt Lake City, KUNR in Nevada and KRCC and KUNC in Colorado.

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